彭博社:中国的“千禧一代”热衷兼职而非做传统工作

2017-02-23 来源:蓝湖资本

编者按:国外科技圈也开始注意到了中国经济放缓之下,灵活用工的兴起——年轻一代正在打破传统老一辈稳定的传统就业观,开始寻求更多的自由与安逸。彭博社(Bloomberg News)最近通过采访斗米兼职 CEO 赵世勇、斗米兼职的用户、关注社会和人口的教授以及投资人,揭示了中国的年轻劳动力正在发生的变化。

China’s MillennialsAre Hustling For Part Time Gigs Instead Of Traditional Jobs

中国的“千禧一代”热衷兼职而非做传统工作

彭博社记者 David Ramli,  Xiaoqing Pi 报道

With a fur-linedjacket and a Miu Miu shoulder bag, Zhang Chen isn’t yourtraditional Chinese migrant worker. She huddles with about 40 others in thefrosty, polluted air of North Beijing, waiting to apply for a two-day jobguiding visitors at a sporting goods convention.

穿着皮衣、背着Miu Miu肩包的张晨,不是那种传统的中国流动劳动力。她与另外 40 多个人在北京污浊的空气中挤在一起,等待申请一个为期两天的在一个体育用品展会上引导参观者的工作。

“The money islittle,” the 21-year-old accounting student said of theshort gig that pays about 240 yuan ($35). “But I want amore interesting life.”

这位 21 岁的会计学专业学生在提及这份短工 240 元的报酬时说:“钱很少,但我希望拥有更有意思的生活。”

Chen was lined up forthe work through DouMi,a startup that focuses exclusively on part-time positions and blends elementsof a temp agency with an internet jobs board and marketing service. Withbacking from web giants Baidu Inc.and TencentHoldings Ltd., monthly active users have doubled to 20 million injust six months as China’s youth warm to short-termemployment and bloated state-owned enterprises trim their labor force.

张晨是通过斗米兼职网申请的这份工作,斗米兼职是一家专门致力于发布兼职工作岗位的初创企业。在网络巨头百度和腾讯的支持下,其月活跃用户人数在仅仅半年时间内就翻了一番,达到 2000 万,这是因为中国的年轻人热衷于兼职工作,而国企也在裁员。

For around 130 yuan aday, DouMi users can sort crates of milk at a supermarket or hand out pamphletson frozen sidewalks. Those considered “beautifulwomen,” and between the ages of 18 and 28, can makefour times as much plus tips by working as live-streaming models to keep mostly-maleviewers entertained. Many of the roles run for mere days or weeks at a time, a flexibilitythat suitsthose juggling social lives and university studies.

斗米平台的兼职用户可以做超市理货员,或者做地推传单等工作,每天的收入大约为 130 元。那些年龄在 18 岁到 28 岁之间的“美女”也可以找到视频直播的工作,以获得 4 倍以上更高的收入。平台上许多工作的持续时间只有几天或者几个星期,这种灵活性正适合那些在校大学生和社会人员。

“Every month wehave between 300,000 and 400,000 jobs,” said Chief Executive Officer Zhao Shiyong. “There are a lot ofyounger people who say they don’t want too much jobsecurity because they may not need it, because often they don’t plan to stay in any one city.”

斗米兼职的 CEO 赵世勇说:“每个月我们会有 30 万到 40 万份工作。很多年轻人说,他们不想要太多的工作保障,因为他们可能不需要,他们往往不打算长期待在一个城市。”

Hopping from oneshort-term stint to another isn’t the sort of aspirationan earlier generation had in China, where the middle-class dream has long beenuniversity degrees followed by a stable job — preferably one backed by thegovernment. In a 2016 poll of 13,000 college students, 48 percent said theydidn’t want to enter the traditional labor market.Almost half of DouMi’s job seekers are students while90 percent are 35 or younger.

上一代中国人不会希望从一个短期工作跳到另一个短期工作,一直以来,中产阶级的梦想就是大学毕业后找一份稳定的工作——最好是有政府背景的那种。2016 年对 1.3 万名大学生进行的调查显示,有 48%的人说他们不想进入传统的劳动力市场。斗米兼职网站上有近一半找工作的人都是学生,90%的人都在 35 岁以 下。

“Those born after 1990 are no longer as hardworking and uncomplaining as their parents,”said Bai Peiwei, an economics professor at Xiamen University. “They valuefreedom and leisure, and hate being restricted by superiors in traditionaljobs.”

厦门大学经济学院教授柏培文说:“那些 90 后不像他们的父母那样任劳任怨。他们注重自由和安逸,痛恨在传统工作中受到上司的约束。”

At its Beijingheadquarters, DouMi’s corridors are filled withbrightly-painted advertising banners of other brands. The company, which isnamed after a colloquial expression for building vast wealth one cup of rice ata time, works with established employers like Starbucks and KFC to find laboron demand. For an extra fee, DouMi will run entire marketing campaigns –printing pamphlets while training the sales staff that will pound the pavementto sell a product.

在斗米兼职公司的北京总部走廊,有大量客户存放的色彩鲜艳的线下活动宣传物料。斗米公司的名字来自中国的成语“斗米成仓”;为许多知名的品牌提供招聘服务,比如星巴克和 KFC 等;还能够为客户提供从物料设计、兼职招聘、培训管理及销售售后等一些列增值服务获得服务费收入。

The company has raisedmore than $80 million, including a $40 million Series B round in October frominvestors including Hillhouse Capital, Banyan Capital and Blue Lake Capital.Money from the latest raising will be spent on improving its technologysystems, boosting recognition in the market and finding more sales executiveswho can work with employers.

斗米兼职已累计融资 8000 万美元,其中最新的 B 轮融资发生在去年 10 月份,融资额 4000 万美元,投资方包括高瓴资本、高榕资本、蓝湖资本等知名投资机构。所融的钱将会用在产品技术、品牌知名度、以及招募服务于客户的销售人员等方面。

At the currentspending pace, DouMi has enough cash to last three years and an initial publicoffering could come within five years, probably in the U.S., Zhao said.

斗米兼职 CEO 赵世勇表示,以目前资金的消耗速度,斗米所拥有的现金能支撑三年,未来五年内或将在赴美上市。

As DouMi’s own workforce has exploded to 1,000 employees, most of themfull-time, the startup has adopted some special measures. One office,resembling a supplies closet, is lined on three sides with bunk beds, wheresales staff can nap when exhaustion takes hold.

斗米作为创业公司,已拥有近千名全职员工,他们为员工在办公室配备有午休室,供临时休息使用。

While part-time workfits in with the desires of the nation’snewest workers, it’s also winning favor from anincreasing number of older ones. China is going through its slowest economicgrowth in more than 25 years and the underemployment rate jumped to more than 5percent last year from near zero in 2010, according to at least one estimate.

尽管兼职工作适合职场新人,但也越来越受到年长者的青睐。据称,中国正在经历 25 年来最缓慢的经济增长;而且从 2010 年到去年,失业率已经从 0%上涨至 5%。

Workers atunprofitable state-run steel mills and coal mines face bleak scenarios. Manyhave had their pay cut and shifts reduced while others are forced to takeunpaid leave. The number of manufacturing, mining and construction jobs havebeen shrinking since 2012 while more workers flock into a gig economy thattends to hire with more flexibility.

国有钢铁公司与煤矿的工人正面临惨淡的局面,很多人排班减少、工资大降,而另一些人被迫休假。2012 年以后,制造业、采矿业与建筑业的工人开始锐减,更多的人选择灵活就业。

“We’ll see more people forced to take part-time jobs,” said ZhouXiaozheng, former professor of sociology at Renmin University in Beijing.”Who doesn’t want stable, traditional and easyjobs at state-owned companies? But those jobs are no longer available, at leastnot available to college graduates or migrant workers who don’t have anyprivilege.”

前中国人民大学社会与人口学院教授周孝正说:“我们将看到越来越多的人去做兼职工作。谁不想在国企找一份稳定、传统和轻松的工作?但没有新增的岗位了。”

Despite its growth,barriers to entry for rivals remain low. Ken Xu, a partner at Shanghai-basedGobi Partners, said DouMi was a good business with a solid management team atrisk of being targeted by smaller rivals focused on specific sectors andgeographies.

“斗米兼职增长情况很不错,既拥有很好的商业模式,也拥有坚实的创业团队;但对竞争对手而言,进入门槛仍然偏低,容易成为细分行业和地区的小平台的靶子。”戈壁创投合伙人徐晨表示。

“It’ll be tough to do things across all sectors because there will beguys who are more experienced, professional and more focused,” said Xu. “When you get bigger and bigger,the margins get leaner.”

他说,“一个平台想要占有所有行业和领域很难,因为每个行业都有更有经验、更专业、更专注的团队出现;并且当一个平台越来越大的时候,利润率也会变得更低。”

DouMi was spun off from58.com, commonly referred to as the Craigslist of China, which remains itsbiggest shareholder and a vital source of referrals. 58.com users areautomatically redirected to DouMi when they search for part-time work. Even ifthat doesn’t end up being through DouMi, theneed to find part-time workers isn’t going away.

斗米兼职是从中国最大的分类信息网站 58 赶集集团分拆出来的,也获得了 58 赶集独家的用户流量资源。上网想要找兼职的用户,最终基本上都会流向斗米平台。

“This is an oldindustry but there’s a revolution here driven bytechnology,” said Harrison Xiao, head of strategic investmentM&A at New Hope Group and a backer of DouMi. “Wesee a trend that as more and more people use the internet they’re going to use it to find part-time jobs.”

新希望集团投资总经理肖祎表示,“兼职虽然是一个存在很久的行业,但目前却正在经历一场由技术推动的变革,我们看到越来越多的人上网找兼职已成为趋势。”

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